TOEFL Reading: ETS-TOEFL阅读机经 - U35BOO057M6DZV1TL$

The sharp rise in industrial output across most of Europe between 1450 and 1575 was mainly due to changes within Europe. A. Industrial development was stimulated by rising incomes and growing populations – especially in market-dependent urban centers – and by government support for certain industries. B. Numerous technological innovations that could be applied to the manufacture of consumer goods grew out of the weapons industry that had developed in Germany, Liege, and Milan. C. New industries that manufactured goods for individual consumers were able to keep prices low in large part because of new technologies designed to accommodate economies of scale. D. With increased mobility of labor and capital, more and more goods – especially inexpensive consumer goods – were produced for wide distribution rather than being limited to local markets. E. Industrial development was limited in some areas due to the high costs of transportation, labor, and rents, and because of the localized nature of industrial knowledge. F. Lower prices for manufactured goods were the result of lower interest rates, of improvements in transportation, security, and organization, and of innovations in metal-making, mining, and printing.