In Europe, cities have been subjects of planning and design since the time of ancient Greek and Roman settlements. A. Beginning in fifteenth-century Italy, advances in weaponry led to the redesign of cities, and a new aesthetic of grand design inspired by classical art forms took hold. B. The walls and open spaces typical of Renaissance urban design were re-discovered in the early twentieth century and became a major component of the Modern movement. C. The social changes brought about by the transition to industrial capitalism placed new demands on urban planners that could only be met by adopting new design styles. D. The redevelopment of Paris in the mid-1800s displayed a new idea of urban design – to make cities orderly, efficient, and healthier and to positively reflect the new social and economic order. E. The goal of Beaux Arts style architects was to replace the older palaces, cathedrals, and civic buildings that dominated European cities with modern buildings. F. The twentieth-century International Style's boxlike steel, glass, and concrete buildings arose from the Modernist view that buildings and cities should be designed and run like machines.