Echolocating bats emit sounds in patterns – characteristic of each species – that contain both frequency-modulated (FM) and constant-frequency (CF) signals. The broadband FM signals and the narrowband CF signals travel out to a target, reflect from it, and return to the hunting bat. In this process of transmission and reflection, the sounds are changed, and the changes in the echoes enable the bat to perceive features of the target. The FM signals report information about target characteristics that modify the timing and the fine frequency structure, or spectrum, of echoes – for example, the target's size, shape, texture, surface structure, and direction in space. Because of their narrow bandwidth, CF signals portray only the target's presence and, in the case of some bat species, its motion relative to the bat's. Responding to changes in the CF echo's frequency, bats of some species correct in flight for the direction and velocity of their moving prey.