It was only after the Portuguese court moved to Brazil that significant progress toward Brazilian independence began. A. Major conspiracies against Portuguese dominance developed in regions where governmental control over Brazil's economy had produced a spirit of revolt among Brazilian merchants. B. King Joao effectively freed Brazil from Portugal's political and economic control and in 1815 elevated Brazil to the legal status of a kingdom coequal with Portugal. C. After freeing itself from Portuguese control. Brazil almost immediately fell under the control of England, which used its economic power to advance Brazil's local industry for England's benefit. D. The presence of King Joao and his court in Rio de Janeiro created competition and tension with the Portuguese elites born in Brazil, who had no loyalties to the Portuguese crown. E. After the Portuguese revolution in 1820, Portugal attempted to reestablish complete control over Brazil; but although King Joao returned to Lisbon, Pedro, his son and heir, remained in Brazil. F. In 1822 Dom Pedro refused Portugal's demand that he return, declared Brazil's independence, and by the year's end had become constitutional Emperor of an independent Brazil.