In the late nineteenth century, numerous African American women's literary clubs met regularly to discuss literary works. Although clubwomen often called their literary meetings "classes," their practices were radically different from those found in turn-of-the-century academic settings. For example, the culture of reading cultivated by these clubs de-emphasized one authoritative perspective on literary texts; instead, it encouraged women to determine for themselves the importance of the texts they read. For instance, a set of questions discussed by members reading Scott's Ivanhoe was sufficiently open-ended to suggest that there were no "right" answers. Rather, the questions were designed to emphasize the importance of careful reading, of individual interpretation, and of "being able to form and hold one's own opinion"