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A rapid population of Japan occurred during its medieval times. Japan's population was around 7 million but it rose keenly to 12 million from year 1200 to 1600. In this period, numerous hamlets formed throughout the country. They were mostly formed in the lands listed as "unsettled" or as a "wasteland" before 1300. There were many facets in increase in number of new hamlets, but by far the most significant characteristic of newly formed hamlets were that they were much bigger in terms of size compared to that of the hamlets built before 1300. There are many factors for forming of such large towns that contributed to increase in population mass. Some factors that can be considered are people's demand for local authority, voluntarily, to defend themselves against outside threats or to form religious communities. Whatever the impetus, such formation of large villages was due to improvements in the agricultural technologies. Some improvements in technologies involved turning over of fields, irrigation methods, and usage of waterwheels, iron tools and diversification of crop output. Among many improvements in agriculture, field leveling was the most basic practice used to optimize the land for farming. The farmers would create flat land for farming by leveling a field. They then would use the surfeit soil from the field to level the slightly slanted field. As a result, two fields of difference in altitude would be formed. Such difference in elevation allowed farmers to use the lower for rice paddy and the higher for dry crops. Practice of field leveling allowed a paddy culture to settle and allowed vast variety in dry crops to be produced due to the formation of drop crop field. Though the labor involved in formation of fields was enormous, the field preparation enabled marshlands alongside the rivers to be used for husbandry even if the rivers were uncontrolled. Rice crops require ample water for growth and it takes much time until they are ready to be harvested. So farmers naturally worked by places where they had access to ample supply of water, such as riverbanks, streams and ponds. However, natural water supply was inefficient for the growth of rice, especially in sweltering summers. This led to the usage and development of ditches and dikes. Development in drawing the water from the distant locations led number of dams to increase and directed them to wherever they needed them. This was most evident in Yamato Basin where framers built permanent dams. The water detained in the pools was kept for times when they needed water for farming in droughty seasons. Such development led to keen proliferation of crop output as the heated water metabolized the germination of crops and caused crops to mature even faster. By mid 1500s, one quarter of all paddy land were used to double crop. The farmers not only used fields to grow two crops in a year, but they even grew three in a single annual cycle. An envoy from Korea stated that Japanese farmers from Hyogo region would grow barley and sow in winter and harvest them in summer. Followed by rice cropping in summer and fall, buckwheat was harvested in winter. As time went on agriculture advanced, such technique progressed from generation to generation. Farming became more consistent and the crop output became even greater. A greater sense of discipline in land tilling and wide range of crops being planted in the same piece of land broadened the understanding of agriculture in farmers. Crops harvested were used for farmers themselves. In many cases, one hectare of decent land was enough to sustain their entire family. They would only plow enough land for food to cater families for several reasons. Much of the medieval Japanese reclamation of land was due to the search for enough arable land to meet the food needed for just a single household. In case a farmer having enough fields for crop output required for his family, he would expand his fields no that one had to put into farming for his crops to grow. This was further compounded by the scarcity of land for fanning as well as limiting capacity for water and fertilizer supplies, not to mention the likelihood of antagonizing neighbors. Taking these variable factors into consideration, farmers of this period persisted with single hectare or less of arable land, just enough to sustain their families.