In order to move from one home base to another, animals must expend calories not only while moving but even before the dispersal when they invest in the development of the muscles needed to move. For example, if a cricket is to leave a deteriorating environment and move to a new and better place, it will need large flight muscles to fly away. Presumably, the calories and materials that go into flight muscle development and maintenance have to come out of the general energy budget of the animal. This means that other organ systems cannot develop as rapidly as they could otherwise, which may mean that the flight-capable individual is, in some other respects, less fit to survive. Dispersing individuals not only have to pay energetic, developmental, and travel costs but are also more often exposed to predators – all of which raises the question, why are animals so often willing to leave home even when this means leaving a familiar, resource-rich location? This question is particularly pertinent for species in which some individuals disperse while others do not or do not disperse as far. One species in which some individuals travel farther than others is Belding's ground squirrel. Young male squirrels travel about 150 meters from the burrow in which they were born, whereas young females usually settle down only 50 meters or so from where they were born. Why should young Belding's ground squirrels disperse at all, and why should the males disperse farther than their sisters? According to one argument, dispersal by juvenile animals of many species may be an adaptation against problems associated with inbreeding. When two closely related individuals mate, their offspring are more likely to manifest genetic diseases than are the offspring of genetically unrelated individuals, and as a result, inbreeding tends to produce animals that are less likely to survive to adulthood and reproduce. Dispersal of juveniles makes inbreeding less likely. If avoidance of inbreeding is the point of dispersing, then one might expect as many female ground squirrels as males to travel 150 meters from their natal burrow. In fact females do not disperse as far as males, perhaps because the costs and benefits of dispersal differ for the two sexes. It has been suggested that the reproductive success of female Belding's ground squirrels depends on their possession of a territory in which to rear their young. Female ground squirrels that remain near their birthplace enjoy assistance from their mothers in the defense of their burrows against rival females. Thus, the benefits of remaining on familiar ground are greater for females than for males. There may, however, be another reason why male mammals disperse greater distances than females. The usual rule is that males, not females, fight with one another for access to mates, and, therefore, males that lose such conflicts may find it advantageous to move away from same-sex rivals that they cannot subdue. Although this hypothesis probably does not apply to Belding's ground squirrels, since young males have not been seen fighting with older ones around the time of dispersal, the idea is more plausible with respect to some other species, such as lions. Lions live in large groups, or prides, from which young males disperse. In contrast, the daughters of the resident lionesses usually spend their entire lives close to where they were born. The sedentary females benefit from their familiarity with good hunting grounds and safe breeding dens in their natal territory, among other things. The departure of many young male lions coincides with the arrival of new mature males that violently displace the previous masters of the pride and chase off the males that are not yet adults in the pride as well. These observations support the mate-competition hypothesis for male dispersal. However, if young males are not evicted after a pride takeover, they often leave anyway without any coercion from adult males and without ever having attempted to mate with their female relatives. Moreover, mature males that have claimed a pride sometimes disperse again, expanding their range to add a second pride of females, at a time when their daughters in the first pride are becoming sexually mature. Inhibitions against inbreeding apparently exist in lions and cause males to leave home.