It can be inferred from the passage that the highlighted "critics" believe which of the following about "hourglass" effect? A. It involves the relegation of industrial workers to less desirable jobs. B. It requires that workers make short-term sacrifices to achieve long-term gains. C. It affects non-unionized workers more strongly than it does unionized workers. D. It represents an increase in unemployment for those in the service sector. E. It threatens the status of the technological and financial elite.