Oxygen and nitrogen are major components of our current atmosphere. But the kinds of hydrogen reactions with other gases that are required to transform simple organic molecules into complex ones are interrupted by oxygen, which combines with hydrogen atoms from other compounds. Therefore, life on Earth must have originated when there was very little oxygen in Earth's atmosphere. The modern scientific theory of life's origin was first formulated in the 1920s by Russian scientist Aleksandr Oparin and independently by British scientist J. B. S. Haldane. The assumption that life sprang up from chemical reactions that were initiated in the early atmosphere (oxygen-poor/hydrogen-rich) and came to completion in the early oceans was posited by the Oparin-Haldane hypothesis, as it came to be called. Oparin and Haldane suggested that the hydrogen-containing gases caused to react with each other to form organic compounds by energy sources such as sunlight and lightning. With regard to the view that these complex organic compounds could have begun to shape in Earth's oceans, some researchers remain skeptical. The probability that the fundamental building blocks of life, formaldehyde (H2CO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN), even though they were probably available, would have been concentrated sufficiently to allow further reactions to occur was likely small. And the more complex organic compounds that might have formed in this way would not have lasted long in the surface-ocean environment, because photochemical and thermal reactions would have destroyed them. Therefore, researchers have sought alternative explanations for how complex organic compounds formed. There is one possibility that the relevant organic compounds were created in space, and asteroids or comets brought them to Earth, probably as tiny dust particles. Recovered from the stratosphere (an upper region of Earth's atmosphere), interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) is tiny particles that are known to be extraterrestrial origin. From various researches, we know that organic compounds, including amino acids, exist in IDPs as well as in some meteorite. Now, we actually have identified the fact that amino acids and many other complex organic compounds in interstellar dust clouds. It is believed that they form from reactions between charged particles and neutral molecules. Those atoms appear in interstellar dust clouds at very low temperatures-on the order of 200 or more degrees below zero on the Celsius scale. It may seem surprising that organic chemistry could occur in the interstellar environment, but it is precisely the extremely low temperatures involved that allow complex organic molecules to exist because temperatures are too cold to allow them to decompose. It is thought that some of the molecules created in the interstellar environment have survived the collapse of the gas and dust cloud that formed our solar nebula and Sun. They would have been incorporated into solid materials that condensed out of the nebula and formed asteroids and comets. Such materials might have been delivered to Earth in great quantities during the heavy bombardment period of solar system history, between 4.5 and 3.8 billion years ago. The hypothesis that life took place in or around hydrothermal vents (hot springs), where new seafloor is being created along mid-ocean ridges (underwater mountain chains) at the ocean's bottom is the third theory of life's origin. By seawater that flows a kilometer or more down through crevices in the rock, is heated, and then rises rapidly back to the surface, the ridges are cooled. During the process, the water gathers substances such as hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, and dissolved ferrous iron. When it meets the cold water, the extremely hot (350℃) vent water generates a dark plume comprised mostly of iron sulfide, a compound produced by the reaction between ferrous iron and hydrogen sulfide. Still, the explanation that submarine hydrothermal vents a likely place for life to have originated is controversial. In vent systems, there are various types of materials from which organic molecules can be synthesized. However, complex organic molecules are not stable at the high temperatures observed in vents positioned directly on the axis of a ridge. If life did originate at the mid-ocean ridges, it probably did so in cooler, off-axis vents. Some researchers claim that perfect place for life to have begun would be in some near-freezing surface environment because even the off-axis vents are too warm. The dispute as to whether life originated in a hot or cold environment is unlikely to stop.