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Agricultural innovations with important social and economic consequences occurred in eleventh-century Europe. A. Light rains and unpredictable winters had made most of the soil in Europe unsuitable for enough agriculture to sustain economic development. B. Farmers switched from oxen to horses to pull their plows because inexpensive pasturage for oxen decreased significantly in the centuries after 1000 B.C.E. C. The introduction of iron horseshoes enabled farmers to transport goods farther than they could with the more expensive oxen. D. Improvements in the design of plows opened up vast areas of land in Northern Europe that had previously been unusable for sustained agriculture. E. With help from a new kind of harness from Asia, horses were able to pull the new heavy plow and to transport goods to market more quickly and frequently. F. The horse came to be valued so greatly that farmers devoted some of their land to growing crops for their horses rather than using this land to grow food for their families.