Large brain size does not always mean that an animal is highly intelligent. Brain size is necessarily associated with overall body size, with large animals having large brains and small animals having small brains. However, it is still necessary for there to be some minimum amount of circuitry (brain cells and processes) present for a species to have the potential to be highly intelligent, whatever way the term intelligence is defined. A measure of relative brain size that has been applied to a variety of species is the encephalization quotient (EQ), the radio of brain mass to body size. The EQ is calculated by measuring the relative size of different body parts over a wide range of species. An EQ of 1.0 means that the brain is exactly the size one would expect for an animal of a particular size, an EQ higher than 1.0 means that a species is relatively brainy. Bottlenose dolphins have a very high EQ, about 2.8 or higher. Thus, dolphin brains are not simply absolutely large: they are relatively very large as well. Humans, by the way, have extremely high EQ values, estimated to be in the neighborhood 7.5, making our species the brainiest in existence. Nonetheless, it is worth noting that EQ levels in several species of odontocetes (toothed whales, dolphins, and porpoises) are significantly higher than is the case for any primate except our own species. The EQ value for a species relates to a number of general measures of cognitive processing ability in different mammals, as well as to a number of life history patterns in mammals. EQ may be correlated with life span, home-range size, and social systems that characterize a particular species. Oddly enough, the relationships found between EQ and other factors in primates and some other mammals do not appear to apply as well to cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises), including the bottlenose dolphin. The reasons for the larger-than-normal brain of the bottlenose dolphin (and indeed of small odontocetes in general) are not clearly understood. To navigate and detect prey, dolphins emit calls into the environment and then listen to the echoes of the calls that return from nearby objects, a process known as echolocation. Among the more plausible suggestions for large brain size are that the complexity of processing high-frequency echolocation information requires the development of large centers in the cerebral hemispheres, and/or that the degree of sociality exhibited by many species, in which individual animals recognize and have particular long- and short-term relationships with a number of other individuals, has favored the evolutionary development of a large, complex brain. Some authors develop a strong case that extreme development of the auditory (hearing) system may be the primary reason for the dolphin's large brain. This opinion is supported by observations that the auditory regions of the dolphin brain are 7 to 250 times larger than the equivalent regions of the human brain and by observations of very fasts auditory brain stem responses to sounds. It should be noted, however, that sperm whales are very social and good echolocators (that is, good at locating objects by emitting sounds and detecting the reflections given back), yet their EQ values are low – only about 0.3. Even some small, less social odontocetes such as Indus river dolphins echolocate well but do not possess the exceptionally large brains that bottlenose dolphins do. Noted biologist Peter Tyack has studies dolphin brains and argues persuasively that large brains evolved in dolphins to permit complex social functions. As is the case with certain primates, bottlenose dolphins and certain other large-brained odontocetes have developed societies in which there exists a balance between cooperation and competition among particular individuals. The social politics of chimpanzees and dolphins show some remarkable similarities, especially in terms of the importance of social relations extending far beyond the mother-offspring relationship to include individuals of both sexes across the age range. The development of such complex societies may have favored the evolution of large brain size. The reason that dolphins have a large brain continues to be somewhat elusive but there must be a reason, since maintenance of brain tissue is metabolically expensive. The adult human brain, for example, may only represent 2 percent of the body weight, but it can account for nearly 20 percent of the metabolic rate (the energy used).