The passage suggests which of the following regarding "access to managerial positions" for disadvantaged groups? A. This access is only significant when the percentage of disadvantaged group members in managerial positions mirrors the percent of that group in the general public. B. This access is largely the result of policy decisions made response to interest of those groups. C. This access has meaning apart from any policy benefits it confer on those groups. D. This access often creates increased access to non-managerial position for those groups. E. The extent of this access tends to be similar across different disadvantaged groups.