Preschool programs provide opportunities for young children to develop socially, emotionally, and cognitively. A. In addition to stressing academic development, preschools should be enjoyable, since studies show that children benefit from programs they find fun. B. Preschool programs such as Head Start have been shown to help prepare children for school and may also have long-term benefits in helping children become effective adults. C. Studies have shown that preschool programs are most effective when they focus on only one area of development rather than trying to serve the "whole" D. The primary purpose of preschool programs varies by country, with some stressing the importance of group experience, and others self-reliance or getting a good academic start. E. Critics of preschool programs arguer that these programs put undue pressure on children and may not be effective if children are not developmentally ready for academic work. F. David Elkind is a critic of public funded preschool programs, arguing that the parent cannot control their children's emotional development.