TOEFL Reading: ETS-TOEFL阅读机经 - 48J4OX7U44794QO3M$

Lizards can be divided into two types according to the way they look for food: sit-and-wait foragers and active foragers. Sit-and-wait lizards normally remain in one spot from which they can survey a broad area. These motionless lizards detect the movement of an insect visually and capture it with a quick run from their observation site. Sit-and-wait lizards may be most successful in detecting and capturing relatively large insects like beetles and grasshoppers. Active foragers, on the other hand, spend most of their time on the ground surface, moving steadily and poking their heads under fallen leaves and into crevices in the ground. These lizards apparently rely largely on chemical cues to detect insects, and they probably seek out local concentrations of prey such as termites. Active foragers appear to eat more insects than do lizards that are sit-and-wait predators. Thus, the different foraging behaviors of lizards lead to differences in their diets, even when the two kinds of lizards occur in the same habitat. The different foraging modes also have different consequences for lizards regarding their exposure to predators. A lizard that spends 99 percent of its time resting motionless is relatively inconspicuous, whereas a lizard that spends most of its time moving is easily seen. Sit-and-wait lizards are probably most likely to be discovered and captured by predators that are active searchers, whereas widely foraging lizards are likely to be caught by sit-and-wait predators. Because of this difference, foraging modes may alternate at successive levels in the food chain: insects that move about may be captured by lizards that are sit-and-wait foragers, and those lizards may be eaten by active predators, whereas insects that are sedentary are more likely to be discovered by lizards that are active foragers, and those lizards may be caught by sit-and-wait predators. The body forms of sit-and-wait foragers may reflect selective pressures different from those that act on active foragers. Sit-and-wait lizards are often stout bodied, short tailed, and colored to match their background. Many of these species have patterns of different-colored blotches that probably obscure the outlines of the lizard's body as it rests motionless on a rock or a tree trunk. Active foragers are usually slim and elongated with long tails, and they often have patterns of stripes that may produce optical illusions as they move. However, one predator-avoidance mechanism, the ability to break off their tails when they are seized by predators, does not differ among lizards with different foraging modes. What physiological characteristics are necessary to support different foraging modes. The energy requirements of a quick motion that lasts for only a second or two are quite different from those of locomotion that is sustained nearly continuously for several hours. Sit-and-wait lizards and active foragers differ in their relative emphasis on the two ways that most animals use adenosine triphosphate (ATP) – a molecule that transports energy within cells – for activity and in how long that activity can be sustained. Sit-and-wait lizards move in brief spurts, and they rely largely on anaerobic metabolism to sustain their movements, namely the kind of metabolism that does not use oxygen. Anaerobic metabolism uses glycogen stored in the muscles and produces lactic acid as its end product. It is a way to synthesize ATP quickly (because the glycogen is already in the muscles), but it is not good for sustained activity because the glycogen is quickly exhausted and lactic acid inhibits cellular metabolism. Lizards that rely on anaerobic metabolism can make brief sprints but become exhausted when they are forced to run continuously. In contrast, aerobic metabolism uses glucose that is carried to the muscles by the circulatory system, and it produces carbon dioxide and water as end products. Aerobic exercise can continue for long periods because the circulatory system brings more glucose and carries carbon dioxide away. As a result, active foragers can sustain activity for long periods without exhaustion. Active species of lizards have larger hearts and more red blood cells in their blood than do sit-and-wait species. As a result, each beat of the heart pumps more blood, and that blood carries more oxygen to the tissues of an active species than a sit-and-wait species.